Monday, December 26, 2011




PHYSICAL QUANTITIES AND MEASUREMENT

OBJECTIVES
To obtain derived quantities from the base quantities.

INFERENCES
  1. Base quantities are the quantities that cannot be defined in terms of other quantities.
  2. Derived quantities are physical quantities derived from the base quantities through multiplication, division or both.
  3. Density of substance, ρ = mass    = m  
                                                      volume     V

  1. Relative density, ρ  = ρ____
   ρ
                                             
HYPOTHESIS
1.      Measuring physical quantities precisely.
2.      Differentiate between base and derived quantities.


EXPERIMENT 1a

APPARATUS
  1. Wooden block
  2. Vernier caliper
  3. Beam balance / electronic balance

PROCEDURES
  1. Mesure the dimension of the wooden block by using vernier caliper.
  2. The main scale, which is the value on the main scale just before the zero mark on the vernier scale.
  3. The reading on the vernier scale, which is the marking on the vernier scale, which coincides with a marking on the main scale.
  4. The total reading is the obtained by adding the reading on the main scalewith the reading on the vernier scale.
  5. Calculate the mass of the wooden block by using beam balance / electronic balance.



RESULT

DIMENSION
READING
HEIGHT, h
5.15 cm
0.0515 m
WIDTH, w
2.52  cm
0.0252 m
LENGTH, l
2.52 cm
0.0252 m
MASS, m
20.5 g
0.0205 kg



VOLUME, V







32.70 cm³







0.0000327 m³

DENSITY , ρ







0.63






626..91
RELATIVE DENSITY, ρ







0.62691














EXPERIMENT 1b

APPARATUS
  1. Glass rod                                                                    -1
  2. Micrometer screw gauge                                           -1
  3. Beam balance / electronic balance                            -1
  4. Ruler                                                                           -1


PROCEDURES
  1. Measure the dimension of the glass by using Micrometer screw gauge.
  2. Determine the reading on the main scale.
  3. Determine the reading on the circular scale, which is the marking on the circular scale that coincides with the horinzontolline of the main scale.
  4. The total reading is the obtained by adding the reading on the main scale with the reading on circular scale.
  5. Calculate the mass of the glass rod by using beam balance / electronic balance.

*Note : use the formula beow to get the volume of the glass rod
       

V = —–– ×l
       


Where v= volume, l = length, D = diameter














RESULT

DIMENSION
READING
DIAMETER, D
0.52 cm
0.0052 m
LENGTH, l
1.74 cm
0.0174 m
MASS, m
0.6 g
0.00006 kg



VOLUME, V







0.37 cm³







0.00000037 m³
DENSITY, ρ






1.62






162.16
RELATIVE DENSITY, ρ






0.16216





      










EXPERIMENT 1c

APPARATUS
  1. Metal block / rod                                                       -1
  2.  Vernier Calliper                                                        -1
  3. Beam balance / Electronic balance                           -1

PROCEDURES
  1. Measure the dimension of the metal block by using vernier caliper.
  2. The main scale, which is the value on the main scale just before the zero mark on the vernier scale.
  3. The reading on the vernier scale, which is the marking on the vernier scale, which coincides with a marking on the main scale.
  4. The total reading is the obtained by adding the reading on the main scalewith the reading on the vernier scale.
  5. Calculate the mass of the metal block by using beam balance / electronic balance.






















RESULT
DIMENSION
READIING
AVERAGE
TRIAL 1
TRIAL 2
DIAMETER, D
3.73 cm
3.73 cm
3.73 cm
LENGTH, l
1.11 cm
1.11 cm
1.11 cm
MASS, m
99.9 g
9.99 g
9.99 g





VOLUME, V









12.13 cm³









12.13 cm³









12.13 cm³
DENSITYof MATERIAL, ρ








8.24








8.24








8.24
RELATIVE DENSITY, ρ













8.24







8.24














8.24



     












QUESTION

STATE THE PRECAUTIONARY STEPS TO AVOID ERRORS IN THE EXPERIMENT.

-Before using vernier calipers, the jaws must be closed with nothing between them to cheak the presence of zero error.

- The faces of the anvil and the spindle should be wiped clean to remove dirt particles which may affect the reading of the micrometer.

-When taking a reading, the stimble must be turned until the object is gripped very gently between the anvil and the spindle.







CONCLUSION

-         Receive  identify find the told of object












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